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Organic Redox Flow Battery Materials [Battery Materials]

 Despite the advancements and increasing popularity in renewable energies, there remains a significant need for large-scale energy storage systems to fully actualize renewable energies on a national and global scale. Redox flow batteries (RFB) are suitable for the needs of large scale energy storage systems, particularly due to their safety and long duration cycling. A conventional RFB requires metal-based active materials such as vanadium; however, its potentially high cost and limited non-renewable availability is prohibitive. In order to address cost and renewability issues, organic redox flow battery (ORFB) which takes advantage of organic active materials have received increased attention.1-3) Within a ORFB system, two solutions of organic active materials are flowed and pumped into cell stacks from separate tanks, and the charge/discharge redox cycle occurs though porous separating membrane. The catholyte solution can include organic radical materials such as TEMPO,4) and metal complexes such as ferrocene,5) whereas the anolyte solution can include viologenes6) and quinones.7) These organic active materials are useful for RFB with aqueous solutions. Additionally, phenothiazines, quinoxalines,8-9) alkoxybenzenes and fluorenones10) are suitable for RFB using non-aqueous solutions.
Organic Redox Flow Battery

Organic Radicals [Battery Materials]

A1343
4-Amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
A1348
4-Acetamido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical [Catalyst for Oxidation]
A3235
4-Amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical (purified by sublimation)
A5440
PTIO (=2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl) [Stable free radical reagent for the simultaneous determination of NO and NO2 in the atmosphere]
B5642
Bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl-1-oxyl) Sebacate
C1406
3-Carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
C1428
4-Carboxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
C1432
4-(2-Chloroacetamido)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
C1782
4-Cyano-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
D2295
2-(4-Nitrophenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl Free Radical
D2399
16-DOXYL-stearic Acid Free Radical
D4313
1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Free Radical
G0020
Galvinoxyl Free Radical
G0555
4-Glycidyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
H0865
4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
H0878
4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Benzoate Free Radical [Catalyst for Oxidation]
I0486
4-Isothiocyanato-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
I0487
4-(2-Iodoacetamido)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
M1197
4-Methoxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical [Catalyst for Oxidation]
M1531
4-Methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
O0266
4-Oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
O0521
4-Oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical (purified by sublimation)
T1560
2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
T3169
2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-4-(2-propynyloxy)piperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical
T3751
2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl Free Radical (purified by sublimation)

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Quinones & Analogues [Battery Materials]

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Other Organic Active Materials [Battery Materials]

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References

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