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Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Materials
Grätzel et al. first developed a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in 1991.1) The DSSC is a liquid-type device that involves nanoporous titanium oxide (TiO2) as a semiconducting electrode, organic dye-sensitizer and electrolyte solution containing a redox component. This is expected to be a low cost solar cell, because there is a simpler device structure compared with the other solar cells.2) The DSSC is usable under conditions with weak light. Thus, it is expected that the DSSC may be installed in a room. A ruthenium complex with a bipyridine ligand is one of popular organic dyes for the solar cell.3) In the polypyridine ligand of the ruthenium complex, we can introduce some carboxyl or phosphonic acid groups forming a linkage with TiO2. In addition, metal-free organic dyes (eg. D-102, D-131 and D-358) were also developed, because they do not contain any expensive ruthenium atoms.4,5) Several examples of DSSC with all solid systems are reported as well.6)
- 1)B. O'Regan, M. Grätzel, Nature 1991, 353, 737.
- 2)M. K. Nazeeruddin, P. Pechy, M.Grätzel, Chem. Commum. 1997, 1705.
- 3)Review: M. Grätzel, Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44, 6841.
- 4)W. H. Howie, F. Claeyssens, H. Miura, L. M. Peter, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 1367.
- 5)R. Yoneya Ogura, S. Nakane, M. Morooka, M. Orihashi, Y. Suzuki, K. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2009, 94, 073308/1.
- 6)L. Schmidt-Mende, U. Bach, R. Humphry-Baker, T. Horiuchi, H. Miura, S. Ito, S. Uchida, M. Grätzel, Adv. Mater. 2005, 17, 813.