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Photopolymerization Initiators

 Photopolymerization initiators are used in many fields to generate photocurable composites. These composites are polymerized by irradiation with UV light and electron beam which leads to altered physical properties of the composites such as solubility, viscosity and adhesiveness. In particular, the phenomenon in which a liquid changes into a solid is most useful and is applied to surface-treating techniques in fields including paints, printing inks, dental materials, lithography, photoresist, etc. A growing number of intensive studies have been made for the development of improved properties for novel photopolymerization initiators.
 Photopolymerization initiators can be divided roughly into three groups with the generated active species, as shown in the upper figure. The conventional photopolymerization initiators generate free radicals upon light irradiation, and the resulting radical starts the polymerization process. Typical initiators are represented by benzoin derivatives. Photo-acid generators which produce cations (acid) by light irradiation, were put to practical use in the late 1990s. Photo-base generators, which produce anions (base) by light irradiation, are of current interest in research.
 Photopolymerization initiators are divided roughly into three groups as shown above. For a photopolymerization initiator to be an excellent initiator the following properties must be considered;
 (1) High quantum yields in the generation of radicals, cations and anions 
 (2) Overlap in absorption wavelength of the photopolymerization initiators and emission wavelength of the light source
 (3) High thermal stability and high stability in darkness
 (4) Highly soluble in monomers and oligomers
 In addition to those just developed, we have a wide assortment of initiators, such as benzoin derivatives which are already in use.
A0061
Acetophenone
A0104
3'-Hydroxyacetophenone
A0502
Anthraquinone
A0508
Sodium Anthraquinone-2-sulfonate Monohydrate
A1010
Anisoin
A1028
p-Anisil
B0050
Benzil
B0079
Benzoin
B0083
Benzophenone
B0103
2-Benzoylbenzoic Acid
B0139
4,4'-Bis(diethylamino)benzophenone
B0481
4,4'-Bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone
B0869
Benzoin Methyl Ether
B0942
Benzoin Isopropyl Ether
B0948
3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic Dianhydride
B1015
Benzoin Isobutyl Ether
B1019
Benzoin Ethyl Ether
B1033
Methyl Benzoylformate
B1164
4-Benzoylbenzoic Acid
B1225
2,2'-Bis(2-chlorophenyl)-4,4',5,5'-tetraphenyl-1,2'-biimidazole [Photopolymerization Initiator]
B1231
Methyl 2-Benzoylbenzoate
B1267
4-Benzoyl 4'-Methyldiphenyl Sulfide
B3633
2-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-4,6-bis(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine
B3914
2-Benzyl-2-(dimethylamino)-4'-morpholinobutyrophenone
C0014
(±)-Camphorquinone
C0292
2-Chlorothioxanthone
D0444
Ferrocene
D0577
4,4'-Dihydroxybenzophenone
D1621
4,4'-Dichlorobenzophenone
D1640
2,2-Diethoxyacetophenone
D1702
2,2-Dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone
D1791
Dibenzosuberenone
D1875
4,4'-Dimethylbenzil
D2375
2,4-Diethylthioxanthen-9-one
D2561
4-(Dimethylamino)benzophenone
D3289
3,4-Dimethylbenzophenone
D3358
Diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine Oxide
D4196
1,4-Dibenzoylbenzene
E0063
2-Ethylanthraquinone
H0193
4'-Hydroxyacetophenone
H0222
4-Hydroxybenzophenone
H0617
1-Hydroxycyclohexyl Phenyl Ketone
H0991
2-Hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone
H1361
2-Hydroxy-4'-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone
H1518
3-Hydroxybenzophenone
I0678
2-Isopropylthioxanthone
L0290
Lithium Phenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphinate
M0903
2-Methylbenzophenone
M1247
3-Methylbenzophenone
M2028
2-Methyl-4'-(methylthio)-2-morpholinopropiophenone
P0080
9,10-Phenanthrenequinone
P0211
2-Isonitrosopropiophenone
P1116
4-Phenylbenzophenone
P1136
9,10-Phenanthrenequinone
P1410
2-Phenyl-2-(p-toluenesulfonyloxy)acetophenone
P2312
Phenylbis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine Oxide

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References

  • 1)M. Kakuoka, Kagaku Kogyo (Chem. Ind.) 2001, 497.
  • 2)M. Kakuoka, Kagaku Kogyo (Chem. Ind.) 1999, 592.
  • 3)T. Yamaoka, Nippon Setchaku Kyokaishi 1989, 25, 144.

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