Recently, transition metal mediated cross-coupling reactions have been widely used as useful synthetic tools and applied to the synthesis of various functional molecules such as bioactive compounds and biaryls for liquid crystal materials. As a feature of these transformations, it is found that there are many name reactions for each kind of nucleophile used for coupling reactions. And then in 2010, for making a great contribution to develop the metal-based cross-coupling reactions, Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki jointly received the Nobel Prize in chemistry, verifying the usefulness of the transition metal mediated cross-coupling reactions. The following shows the synthetic properties of palladium/nickel catalyzed cross-coupling reactions commonly used with the chemical equations.
Cross-coupling reactions using palladium/Nickel catalysts