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Xenoantigen and Anti-Xenoantigen Antibodies

N-Acetylneuraminic Acid (NeuAc) and N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid (NeuGc) are the two major forms of sialic acid found in mammals. Humans are unable to synthesize Neu5Gc due to a mutation in the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for Neu5Gc synthesis. Humans naturally possess antibodies against Neu5Gc glycan structures, and this is responsible for the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins containing Neu5Gc glycan epitopes. Therefore, a method for the detection of Neu5Gc is required.

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Anti-NeuGc Polyclonal Antibody reacts NeuGc but not NeuAc

Graph 1. Anti-NeuGc Polyclonal Antibody reacts NeuGc but not NeuAc

 

Binding of Anti-NeuGc Antibody is inhibited by NeuGcα(2-3)Gal and NeuGcα(2-6)Gal

Graph 2. Binding of Anti-NeuGc Antibody is inhibited by NeuGcα(2-3)Gal and NeuGcα(2-6)Gal

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Anti-αGal antibody exists as a natural antibody in humans. Binding of this antibody to αGal antigens (αGal epitope) expressed on porcine xenograft surfaces are a major factor for determining engraft survival. Recently, it has been observed that therapeutic antibodies and cell processing material for reproductive medicine contain the αGal epitope, which indicates the importance of rapid detection of αGal epitope.

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Anti-αGal antibody can be utilized for detection of the αGal epitope on glycoproteins

Graph 3. Anti-αGal antibody can be utilized for detection of the αGal epitope on glycoproteins

 

Anti-αGal antibody shows the same high specificity compared with an anti-αGal monoclonal antibody

Graph 4. Anti-αGal antibody shows the same high specificity compared with an anti-αGal monoclonal antibody

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