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Photo-Acid Generators (PAGs)

Photo-acid generators (PAGs) are photo-sensitizers that undergo photolysis to generate acids. Such photo-acid generators are useful for various applications, because acids generated by photo-irradiation can be reactive species to promote cationic polymerizations and cross-linking reactions.

Photo-acid generators consist of a photo absorber moiety and an acid generating source moiety. In the type of ionic photo-acid generators, the cationic moieties such as sulfonium and iodonium mediate photo absorption, and then acids can be generated at the anionic moiety by following photolysis of the cationic moiety. We can provide variety of cation/anion combinations, because the structure of cation moiety can control photo absorption wavelength and absorbance, and also the structure of anion moiety can control acidity.

Non-ionic photo-acid generators are also known, because low solubility of ionic photo-acid generators is sometimes problematic. In the type of non-ionic photo-acid generators, a photo absorber moiety is bound with an acid generating source moiety by a covalent bond, and photolysis of the molecule can generate acids. We can provide several non-ionic photo-acid generators such as sulfonate esters and trichloromethyltriazine derivatives.

Sulfonium Salt-type Photo-Acid Generators

Strong acidity: HSbF6 > HB(C6F5)4 > HPF6 > HBF4 > (Rf)SO3H > RSO3H

Triphenylsulfonium Hexafluoroantimonate

Diphenyl[4-(phenylthio)phenyl]sulfonium Hexafluoroantimonate

Triphenylsulfonium Hexafluorophosphate

(9-Oxo-9H-thioxanthen-2-yl)[4-[(9-oxo-9H-thioxanthen-2-yl)thio]phenyl](phenyl)sulfonium Tetrakis(perfluorophenyl)borate

Triphenylsulfonium Hexafluorophosphate

Diphenyl[4-(phenylthio)phenyl]sulfonium Hexafluorophosphate

(4-Hydroxyphenyl)dimethylsulfonium Hexafluorophosphate

Tri-p-tolylsulfonium Hexafluorophosphate

Triphenylsulfonium Tetrafluoroborate

Triphenylsulfonium Trifluoromethanesulfonate

Tri-p-tolylsulfonium Trifluoromethanesulfonate

Triphenylsulfonium Nonafluoro-1-butanesulfonate

Triphenylsulfonium 10-Camphorsulfonate

Benzyl(4-hydroxyphenyl)(methyl)sulfonium Trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate(V)

Diphenyl[4-(phenylthio)phenyl]sulfonium Trifluorotris(pentafluoroethyl)phosphate (ca. 50% in Propylene Carbonate)

(9-Oxo-9H-thioxanthen-2-yl)[4-[(9-oxo-9H-thioxanthen-2-yl)thio]phenyl](phenyl)sulfonium Trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate(V)

Triphenylsulfonium Chloride

Triphenylsulfonium Bromide

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